Foot & Ankle Specialists

Foot & Ankle Specialists

Foot or ankle pain doesn’t have to stop you. But your chances of having a painful condition does increase with age. You put more miles on your feet during your lifetime than most people put on their cars. If you live to age 70 and walk the recommended 10,000 steps a day, you will walk more than 100,000 miles. All those steps can take a toll. Most people know that ankle sprains, plantar fasciitis and arthritis can make walking painful, but unless you have firsthand experience, few realize that ingrown toenails, bunions and hammertoes are just as debilitating. Foot pain, regardless of the cause, interferes with the quality of your life. Bone & Joint’s podiatrists and foot and ankle surgeons provide conservative, comprehensive treatment for many foot conditions and injuries.

You don’t have to live with foot or ankle pain, scheduling an appointment at Bone and Joint is your first solid step toward relief. See a Bone & Joint podiatrist or foot and ankle specialist if you experience:

  • Foot pain when you walk
  • Aches and pains in your lower leg
  • Ingrown toenails, hammertoes or bunions
  • Sore toes
  • Foot pain caused by poor circulation
  • Diabetic foot conditions
  • Open sores that are slow to heal
  • Nail fungus or ingrown toenails cause pain and embarrassment
Stop bunion pain for good a picture of a person rubbing a sore bunion with black high heels in the background

Foot & Ankle Conditions

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Rheumatoid arthritis (we call it “RA”) is a chronic disease. It affects joints throughout your body. It commonly starts in your hands or feet. For many people, it causes problems in the feet and ankles.

Common Causes

RA is an autoimmune disease. It happens when your immune system attacks your body’s own cells. We don’t understand why this happens. It may be linked to your genes. It may be linked to something you are exposed to in your environment. And, your hormones may play a role.

Stress fractures are one or more tiny cracks in a bone. These fractures are common in the legs and feet. That’s because your legs and feet have to support your weight and absorb the forces of walking, running and jumping.

Common Causes

Stress fractures can happen if you suddenly increase a high-impact activity. Walking or running for a much longer distance than you normally do can cause it. You can develop stress fractures if you switch from a soft surface to a hard or uneven one. It can happen if you don’t wear the proper shoes, or if you have poor training techniques. Your risk is higher if you have weak bones because of a medical condition or because of a medication you take.

Ligaments are fibrous, elastic bands of tissue that connect and stabilize the bones. An ankle sprain is a common, painful injury that occurs when one or more of the ankle ligaments is stretched beyond the normal range of motion. Sprains can occur as a result of sudden twisting, turning or rolling movements.

Common Causes:

A sprained ankle is an injury that occurs when you roll, twist or turn your ankle in an awkward way. This can stretch or tear the tough bands of tissue (ligaments) that help hold your ankle bones together.

You have flat feet when the arches on the inside of your feet are flattened, allowing the entire soles of your feet to touch the floor when you stand up. High arch is an arch that is raised more than normal. The arch runs from the toes to the heel on the bottom of the foot. It is also called pes cavus.

Common Causes:

A flat foot is normal in infants and toddlers, because the foot’s arch hasn’t yet developed. Most people’s arches develop throughout childhood, but some people never develop arches. Arches can also fall over time. Years of wear and tear can weaken the tendon that runs along the inside of your ankle and helps support your arch.

A bunion is a bony bump that forms on the joint at the base of your big toe. It occurs when some of the bones in the front part of your foot move out of place. This causes the tip of your big toe to get pulled toward the smaller toes and forces the joint at the base of your big toe to stick out. The skin over the bunion might be red and sore.

Common Causes:

There are many theories about how bunions develop, but the exact cause is unknown. Factors likely include: Inherited foot type, foot stress or injuries, and deformities present at birth.

Hammer toe and mallet toe are foot deformities that occur due to an imbalance in the muscles, tendons or ligaments that normally hold the toe straight. The type of shoes you wear, foot structure, trauma and certain disease processes can contribute to the development of these deformities.

Common Causes:

Hammer toes have been linked to certain shoes, trauma, and an abnormal balance of the toe muscles.

Ingrown toenails are a common problem that happens when the edge of a toenail grows into the skin of your toe instead of over it. The nail may dig in deep. And that can be very painful.

Common Causes:

An ingrown toenail can develop if your shoes are too tight, which puts pressure on your toes. It can happen if you don’t trim your toenails correctly. Trimming a nail too short or rounding the edges can cause one to form. You’re more likely to get one if you have very thick nails, or if poor eyesight or flexibility makes it hard for you to take care of your toenails. You can get an ingrown toenail after a toe injury, or if you pick or tear at your nails. And, some people just have large toenails, or toenails that curve down at the edges, and this can lead to ingrown toenails.

This is a type of wart that forms on the sole of the foot. It causes a patch of thickened skin. Plantar warts are common, and they aren’t harmful. But they can be tender, and they can be embarrassing.

Common Causes:

Plantar warts are caused by the human papillomavirus. We call it “HPV.” You can come into contact with this virus if you walk barefoot in places that are warm and damp. It can enter the sole of your foot through a cut or a sore. It infects the outermost layer of your skin.

Plantar fasciitis is an irritation of the plantar fascia. This thick band of connective tissue travels across the bottom of the foot between the toes and the heel. It supports the foot’s natural arch. It stretches and becomes taut whenever the foot bears weight.

Common Causes:

Plantar fasciitis is caused by repetitive stress or excessive tension on the plantar fascia. Small tears can develop in this tissue. It can become irritated and inflamed.

Foot & Ankle Services

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Foot and ankle surgery describes everything from toenail surgery to a total ankle replacement. Podiatrists and foot and ankle specialists can perform minor surgical procedures in the provider’s office with local anesthesia. Total ankle replacement or major reconstruction surgery requires a full medical staff, including a foot and ankle surgeon and anesthesiologist. Complex foot or ankle surgeries take place in the surgical suite of a hospital or at an ambulatory surgical center. When a
person loses mobility and use of their feet and ankles, foot and ankle surgery may one course of treatment.

Common Causes:

When a person loses mobility and use of their feet and ankles because of injury, disease, or genetic deformity, surgery may be necessary. If a person experiences a traumatic injury, such as a torn ligament or tendon, surgery is needed at once. At other times, conservative treatments may restore mobility and reduce pain during the first stages of treatment. However, when conservative methods are not effective, surgery may be the next step.

At certain times in life, it’s hard for people to take care of their nails. For some, fungal infections and nail thickness make nail care difficult. For others, ingrown toenails cause problems that need treatment. And for older people, decreased vision and flexibility can make toenail care impossible. No matter the challenge, when people cannot care for their own toenails, a podiatrist or foot and ankle specialist can help with nail care.

Common Causes:

Toenails naturally thicken with age. As nail growth slows, the number of nail cells stack up and become thicker, making them harder to trim. Fungal infections caused by chronic wet or sweaty feet, locker room or shared showers, athlete’s foot, or injury, also can cause abnormal growth and discolored nails. Injured or improperly trimmed toenails can lead to ingrown toenails, infected nail beds, or discomfort when walking, wearing shoes, or lying under the blankets.

People who have diabetes often have high blood sugar levels that contribute to two conditions affecting the health of the legs and feet. Peripheral artery disease (PAD) interferes with blood flow, while peripheral neuropathy affects the nerves. As a result, a person with loss of feeling may experience cuts, bruises, or puncture wounds in the foot and may not know it. The loss of sensation combined with poor circulation allows sores to grow and become infected, making foot ulcers, wounds, or cuts hard to heal. Often these wounds need special care known as diabetic foot care.

Common Causes:

High blood sugar levels can compromise the blood vessels and the nerves in your legs and feet, reducing sensation and circulation. Losing sensation means that a person with diabetes can injure their foot and not feel it. Reduced circulation means the foot does not heal efficiently. These two factors can lead to a serious infection that is hard to treat at home. Routine diabetic foot care is important, especially if you have an open sore.

Additional Services:

Flat feet (adult and pediatric)
High Arches
Heel Pain (Plantar Fasciitis)
Bunion Correction – Lapiplasty
Ankle Arthroscopy

Cartilage Restoration
Ankle Replacements
Achilles Tendon Repair
Foot & Ankle Reconstruction


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